Anarchist Studies Network

A PSA Specialist Group for the Study of Anarchism.

Announcements

ASN members secure £250k research grant from the ESRC. See here

Rowman & Littlefield Int publish two book series by ASN members Saul Newman and Ruth Kinna

Film History

Primary Sources

Acín Aquilué, Ramón Arsenio (1923). Las corridas de toros en 1970. Estudios para una película cómica. Huesca: Editorial V. Campo. <-Ramón Acín, an artist, was a friend of Luis Buñuel, and financed the production of Buñuel's early documentary of rural Spanish poverty, Las Hurdes/Land Without Bread (1933).

Barrett, Rafael (1905). "El cinematógrafo." El Cívico (Aug. 21): ??-??.

- - - (1908). "El porno-cinematógrafo." La Razón (Dec. 18): ??-??.

Claude, Léo (1930). "L'avenir du cinéma." La Revue Anarchiste 3: 46-49.

- - - (1930). "Le cinéma soviétique." La Revue Anarchiste 5: 46-48.

- - - (1930). "Films." La Revue Anarchiste 4: 37-39.

- - - (1929). "Pour Prendre Langue." La Revue Anarchiste 1: 48-49.

- - - (1930). "Le Cinéma: La vague bruiteuse." La Revue Anarchiste 2: ??-??.

CNT, Comité Económico de Cines, Cataluña (1937). Memoria de socialización del Espectáculo. S.l.: Comité Económico de Cines CNT.

Coudert, A. (1913). "Au cinéma." La Bataille Syndicaliste ??: ??.

de la Rubia, [Francisco] Carrasco (1937). "Nuevos rumbos del cinema español." Umbral 6: 13.

– - - (1938). "??" Umbral 41: 10.

Del Pardo, B. (1938). "Perfiles de Aragón. Nuevos bohemios del cinema." Umbral 22: 10.

del Pardo, Samuel (1938). "Apuntes de la guerra. Nuevos bohemios del cinema." Liberación (Jul. 19): ??-??.

Estivalis, José [a.k.a. Armand Guerra] (1913). "El cinematógrafo del pueblo." ¡Tierra! ??: 1. <--A report on the creation of a filmmaking cooperative, the Cinéma du Peuple, in Paris.

- - - (1914). "El cinematógrafo del pueblo." ¡Tierra! ??: 1.

Goodman, Paul (1934). "Bad 'Nature-Impressionism' in Eisenstein." Trend: A Quarterly of the Seven Arts 2.2: 93-94.

- - - (1940). "Chaplin Again, Again, and Again." Partisan Review 7.6: 456-60.

- - - (1964). "Designing Pacifist Films." Utopian Essays and Practical Proposals. New York: Vintage Books. 70-79. <--Originally in Liberation, April 1961.

- - - (1934). "Faulty Cinematics in Hollywood." Trend: A Quarterly of the Seven Arts 2.3: 138-139.

- - - (1941). "Griffith and the Technical Innovations." Partisan Review 8.3: 237-40.

- - - (1935). "Preliminary Topics in Defining Cinema." Trend: A Quarterly of the Seven Arts 3.1: 43-46. <--Reprinted in Introduction to the Art of the Movies, ed. Lewis Jacobs (New [York]Noonday Press, 1960).

- - - (1935). "The Proustian Camera Eye." Trend: A Quarterly of the Seven Arts 2.5: 207-209.

- - - (1942). "The Shape of the Screen and the Darkness of the Theatre." Partisan Review 9.2: 141-52. <--Reprinted in Creator Spirit Come!: The Literary Essays of Paul Goodman, ed. Taylor Stoehr (New York: Free Life Editions, 1979), 88-99.

Guerra, Armand [a.k.a. José Estivalis] (1997). A través de la metralla : escenas vividas en los frentes y en la retaguardia. Montpellier, France: Université Paul-Valéry.

Hartmann, Sadakichi (1925). "From a Hollywood Studio: Chaplin the Conceited -- His Luck -- And His Genius." Curtain 4 (November): 146.

- - - (1931). "Chaplin's 'City Lights.'" Curtain 10 (March): 38.

Lapeyre, A. (1934). "Film." Encyclopédie anarchiste. Ed. Sébastien Faure. Paris: Librairie internationale. 814.

Leeder, Elaine (1983). "Anarchy for Muppets." Review of Anarchism in America, dir. Steven Fischler and Joel Sucher. Social Anarchism 6: 21.

Longuet, Alfonso (1934). El cinema y la realidad social. Buenos Aires: Iman.

- - - (????). "Un aspecto de la cinematografía yanqui: 'sex appeal.'" Claridad ??.??: ??-??. <--Author (b. 1904, Lerida, Spain) also of a series of essays under the title "Cine continuado" in the same journal, 1931-1933.

Madrid, Francisco (1932). Film de la República Comunista Libertaria. Reportaje politico. Barcelona-Madrid: La Flecha.

Mistral, Silvia (1938). "Panorama Internacional: Cinema Yanqui." Umbral 56: 10.

- - - (1937). "Cinema: Plano y Contraplano de Erich von Stroheim." Umbral 40: 11.

Mühsam, Erich (1929). "Der Kampf un Lulu." Illustrierter Film-Kurier 1079: 3-5. <--The article is actually about battles over state censorship of "Lulu," the play by Frank Wedekind that served as the basis for Pabst's film Die Büchse der Pandora (English title: Pandora's Box).

- - - (1931). "Hallo, Chaplin!" Ulk 11: 12. <--A satirical poem about the frenzied crowds that greeted Charlie Chaplin on his visit to Berlin.

Peirats Valls, José (1934). Para una Nueva Concepción del Arte: Lo que Podría Ser un Cinema Social. Barcelona: La Revista Blanca.

Poulaille, Henry (1927). Charles Chaplin. Paris: Grasset. <--Eric Jarry claims that this book, written by an anarchist champion of "proletarian literature," was the first biography dedicated to Chaplin.

Roudine, Victor (1913). "L'art pour le peuple? (Le cinéma calomniateur)." La Bataille Syndicaliste. ??: ??-??.

- - - (1913). "L'art pour le peuple? (Le cinéma calomniateur II)." La Bataille Syndicaliste. ??: ??-??.

Santos, Mateo (1938). "Del cine burgués al cinema social." Timón: Síntesis de orientación políticosocial: 131-140.

- - - (1934). "¿Donde está el cine español?" Popular Film 9.393 (Mar. 8): ??-??.

- - - (1932). "Editorial." Popular Film 7.??: 1.

- - - (1933). "Hacia el cinema social." Suplemento de Tierra y Libertad ?? (May): ??.

- - - (1932). "La cruzada de la cultura: Misiones Pedagógicas." Popular Film 7.287: 1.

- - - (1937). El cine bajo la svastica: la influencia fascista en el cinema internacional. Cuadernos de educación social. Barcelona: Ediciones "Tierra y Libertad".

- - - (1936). "El cine español ha de tener el espíritu de la revolución." Tiempos Nuevos ??: ??.

- - - (1931). "El cinema al servicio de las ideas." Popular Film 6.??? (July 16): 257.

- - - (1934). "Hay que defender el cine español." Popular Film 9.426 (Oct. 18): ??-??.

- - - (1932). "Llamamiento a los aficionados para construir la Agrupación Cinematográfica Española." Popular Film ??.??? (Feb. 4): 1.

- - - (1934). "Nuestro cinema exige una película genuinamente española." Popular Film 9.423 (Sept. 20): ??-??.

- - - (1933). "Sugerencias: El cine como instrumento pedagógico." Popular Film 8.??? (Feb. 5): ??-??.

Veramón, Luis (1938). "Aurora de esperanza, primer ensayo de cine social." Umbral 46: ??. <--Review of Antonio Sau's Aurora de esperanza.

- - - (1938). "Revision de films: Revolución y antirrevolución en dos films de Paul Muni." Umbral 44: 12.

Secondary Sources

Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente (2007). "Propaganda y mitografía en el cine de la guerra civil española (1936-1939)." CIC: Cuadernos de información y comunicación 12: 75-94.

Cabeza San Deogracias, José (2005). "Vendiendo un sueño equivocado: Cine de ficción republicano durante la Guerra Civil Española." El cine cambia la historia. Ed. Julio Montero et al. Madrid: Ediciones Rialp. 105-130.

Centro de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo (2000). Cine y anarquismo. 1936: Colectivización de la industria cinematográfica. Madrid: Fundación Anselmo Lorenzo y Sindicato de Artes Gráficas, Comunicación y Espectáculos de Madrid.

Claver Esteban, José María (1994). "La evolución del discurso fílmico anarquista a través de los documentales rodados en Aragón durante la Guerra Civil." Artigrama: Revista del Departamento de Historia del Arte de la Universidad de Zaragoza 11: 97-114.

Díez Puertas, Emeterio (2003). "El cine bajo la revolución anarquista: Cine libertario." Historia 16.322: 50-101.

Ferrua, Pietro (2005). "Os anarquistas no imaginário cinematográfico." Utopia 20: 51-63.

Frigerio, Vittorio (2003). "Aesthetic Contradictions and Ideological Representations: Anarchist Avant-Garde vs Swashbuckling Melodrama." Review of Film and the Anarchist Imagination by Richard Porton. Film-Philosophy 7.53.

- - - (2004). "Post-modern Bogeymen and the Alibi of 'Good Taste.'" Reply to Porton's response to Frigerio's review of Porton's Film and the Anarchist Imagination. Film-Philosophy 8.18.

Gallo, Silvio (????). "Spielberg e a Etica de Schindler." Jornal de Piracicaba ??: 2.

Jarry, Eric (2001). "Armand Guerra, cineasta e pioniere del cinema militante." Trans. Marco Camenish. Bolletino Archivio G. Pinelli 18: 36-39.

Lovell, Alan (1962). Anarchist Cinema. London: Peace News. <--An extended essay on the work of Jean Vigo, Georges Franju, and Luis Buñuel. "The book analyzes—in considerable detail—anarchist themes in many films, while exploring the three directors’ contrasting visions and presentations of the conflicts within society. The focus includes: visions of authority, society’s established hierarchy of class, wealth and privilege, the corrupting power and influence of the church, anti-militarism, and the individual against the institution" ( ''Anarchy of Imagination'' blog).

Marinone, Isabelle (2004). "L'âme anarchiste du cinéma surréaliste." Mélusine 24: 193-204.

- - - (2004). ''Anarchisme et Cinéma : Panoramique sur une histoire du 7ème art français virée au noir''. Diss., Université Paris I – Panthéon la Sorbonne. <--Includes: "Carl Einstein, un scénariste oublié"; "Emile Cohl l’Incohérent, père du dessin animé"; "Henry Poulaille, défenseur du cinéma humain"; "Jean Painlevé : la science au service d’une nouvelle vision du monde"; "Man Ray : La synthèse de deux expressions d’une même contestation"; "1913-1914 : La coopérative libertaire du Cinéma du Peuple"; "Jean Vigo: 1930-1934"; "GUERRA, Armand.- un cinéaste hors du commun."

- - - (2006). "Anarchisme et Cinéma en France." Regards 9: 355-370.

- - - (2007). "'L'anarchiste' dans le cinéma de fiction français: un motif singulier entre caricature bienveillante et charge malintentionnée." Belphégor 6.2. http://etc.dal.ca/belphegor/vol6_no2/articles/06_02_marino_anacin_fr.html .

- - - (2003). "Les bandes noires du cinéma surréaliste." Réfractions 11: ??-??.

- - - (2004). "Motifs et expressions libertaires dans l’œuvre filmique de René Allio." Cadrage.net: 1ère revue en ligne universitaire française de cinéma 5. www.cadrage.net/dossier/reneallio.htm .

- - - (2006). "Jean Vigo: un cineasta impregnado de anarrquismo." Archivos de la filmoteca: Revista de estudios históricos sobre la imagen 52: 22-41.

- - - (2004). "Qu’est-ce que le cinéma 'Humain'?: Retour sur une conception du cinéma défendue par Henry Poulaille." 1895: Revue de l'association française de recherche sur l'histoire de la cinéma 43: 5-14.

Moral, Mateo (1997). Guerre d’Espagne et cinéma. ??: Reflex.

Pelletier, Stéphane (2002). "Cinéma anarchiste. Pistes de réflexion sur la production de la CNT pendant la révolution espagnole." Les Temps Maudits 13: ??-??.

Pingree, Geoffrey B. (2005). "Modern Anxiety and Documentary Cinema in Republican Spain." Visualizing Spanish Modernity. Ed. Susan Larson and Eva María Woods. Oxford: Berg. 301-328.

Porton, Richard (1999). Film and the Anarchist Imagination. London: Verso.

- - - (2003). "Vagaries of Taste, or How 'Popular' is Popular Culture?" Reply to Vittorio Frigerio's review of Porton's Film and the Anarchist Imagination. Film-Philosophy 7.57.

Resina, Joan Ramon (1998). "Historical Discourse and the Propaganda Film: Reporting the Revolution in Barcelona." New Literary History 29.1: 67-84.

Sánchez Noriega, José Luis (1996). Desde que los LUMIÈRE filmaron a los obreros. Móstoles: Nossa y Jara.

White, Susan (1996). "Anarchist Perspective on Film." Reinventing Anarchy, Again. Ed. Howard J. Ehrlich. San Francisco: AK Press. 274-6.

- - - (1988). "'Not To Bring Them Back, But To Wipe Them Out': James Cameron's Aliens." Social Anarchism 13: 22-29.

- - - (1985). "Re-viewing Vietnam: Dire Notes on Some Dreadful Dreams." Social Anarchism 10: 3-13. <--Comments on Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver, Sylvester Stallone's First Blood and Rambo: First Blood II, Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now, and Michael Cimino's The Deerhunter.

Anarchist Filmography

Anarchists Against the Wall (2003). ''Democracy Isn't Built on Demonstrators' Bodies''. <--"On December 26, 2003, the Israeli army deliberately shot at Gil Namati, a 21 year old Israeli protestor that demonstrated against the wall. Gil was shot with live ammunition in both legs. The incident invoked a media frenzy and raised many questions . . . This film is divided into three parts, the first part presents the investigation which was shown at an AATW press conference, and proved the army was lying about the circumstances of the shooting. The second part criticizes the investigation itself and how the media reacted and portrayed the incident and the wall. The third part is a mock propaganda piece about the 'danger' the anarchists pose in Israel."

Aranda, Vicente, dir. (1996). ''Libertarias''. <--"At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, the nun Maria is forced to flee her convent. She takes refuge in a brothel, until it is liberated by a woman's anarchist group. Maria joins the group and eventually goes to the front. The women's group faces the problems of fighting not only the nationalists, but also factions on the left seeking to impose a more traditional military structure" (Brian Rawnsley, Internet Movie Database). "An epic that mixes documentary, tragedy, romance, comedy, objectivity and introspection to dramatise not only a war for freedom, but also a more covert struggle, the war between the sexes" (Stuart Christie).

Auer, Gabriel, dir. (1980). ''Vacances Royales''. <--"In October 1976, on the occasion of King Juan Carlos's State visit to France, twelve anarchists were detained in France and flown by military plane to the island of Belle Ile En Mer until the Spanish King's departure. The film is based on these events" (Stuart Christie).

Baissat, Bernard, dir. (1993). André Bösiger. Libertaire Jurassien.

Baker, Robert S., and Monty Berman, dirs. (1960). '' The Siege of Sidney Street''. <--"A real-life incident became the basis for this highly fictionalized drama about a January 1911 confrontation between an anarchist affinity group and London police in the Whitechapel district that resulted in an infamous, blazing gun battle" (Stuart Christie).

Berger, Lisa, dir. (2002). Chemin de liberté <--Short documentary about Spanish CNT militant Dolores Prat Coll (1905-2001), produced by Les Films du Monde Libertaire.

Carles, Pierre, and Georges Minangoy, dirs. (2005). Ni vieux, ni traîtres.

Cocteau, Jean, dir. (1947). L'Aigle à deux têtes.

Fernández Violante, Marcela, dir. (1978). ''Cananea''. <--"The Mexican Liberal Party organized the first of many strikes against President Porfirio Diaz, which led to the Mexican Revolution of 1910. This film chronicles the initial revolt and highlights the anarchist struggle" (Stuart Christie).

Fourastié, Philippe, dir. (1969). Choisy le Roi, 1912. <--A film about the Bonnot Gang.

Frank, Louis, dir. (1938). Amanecer sobre España. <--("Dawn Over Spain." English titles: Spain Fights On, The Will of a People; French title: Réveil en Espagne.) "Short documentary made from archive images from the Spanish Civil War: Social problems, the making of weapons, the syndicates CNT and UGT, the history of Spain... and even a bullfight by Rafael 'El Gallo'" (Miguel Ángel Díaz González, Internet Movie Database).

- - - , and Juan Pallejá, dirs. (1937). Un Pueblo en armas. <--English title: Fury Over Spain.

Gamero, Juan, dir. (1997). Vivir la Utopia. <--"This film by Juan Gamero consists of 30 interviews with survivors of the 1936-1939 Spanish Revolution, and in our view is one of the best documentaries dealing with the theme" (Stuart Christie).

Gaspar, José (1936). El Entierro de Durruti.

Giner, Joaquín, dir. (1937). El Frente y la retaguardia.

González, Valentín R., dir. (1936). [ http://www.brightcove.com/title.jsp?title=240035630&channel=219646953&lineup=240035623 ¡Nosotros somos así! <--(English: "That's The Way We Are!") "Short musical comedy containing a blend of fiction with the actual preparations for the making of a movie. Inspired by Busby Berkeley and Betty Boop!" (Stuart Christie).

- - - , dir. (1937). La Silla vacía - Documental de la circunscripción Sur-Ebro.

Guerra, Armand, dir. [a.k.a. José Estivalis] (1930). El Amor solfeando. <--a.k.a. El Profesor de mi mujer, El Profesor de mi señora (Spain: reissue title).

- - - , dir. (1928). Batalla de damas. <--a.k.a. Der Kampf um den Mann (Germany).

- - - , dir. (1936). ''Carne de fieras''. <--Began filming just before the outbreak of the revolution; completed filming, but never edited or shown. Rediscovered in the municipal archives of Zaragoza, edited according to screenplay, and released in 1996.

- - - , dir. (1914). La Commune.

- - - , dir. (1937). Estampas guerreras. Número 1. <--a.k.a. Gestas proletarias. Número 1.

- - - , dir. (1937). Estampas guerreras. Número 2. <--a.k.a. Gestas proletarias. Número 2.

- - - , dir. (1926). Luis Candelas o El bandido de Madrid.

- - - (1913). Les misères de l'aiguille.

Les, dir. (1936). Bajo el signo libertario.

- - - , dir. (1936). La Batalla de Farlete. <--"Short documentary dedicated to the activities of the 'Durruti' column during the Spanish Civil War" (Internet Movie Database).

- - - (1937). La Columna de Hierro (hacia Teruel)

- - - (1936-1937). Madrid, tumba del fascio.

Lozes, Anne, ed. (1984). Cinéma et anarchie: dossier établi par le Centre international de recherches sur l'anarchisme. Genève: CIRA.

Marquet, Félix (1937). Alas negras. <--(English: "Black Wings.") Documentary of the bombing of Aragon and Catalonia.

- - - (1937). 1937: Tres fechas gloriosas.

- - - (1937). El Ejército de la victoria. Un episodio: Casa Ambrosio.

- - - , and Juan Pallejá (1936). ¡¡Ayuda a Madrid!! <--"Documentary made as part of the campaign to drum up aid for Madrid during the first months of the siege. CNT slogans calling for solidarity with Madrid appear over images of bomb-damaged buildings in Madrid. Views of Barcelona and port. Dockers unloading provisions. Images of the El Born market and the headquarters of the CNT regional committee. Lorries and trains displaying placards relating to the Aid for Madrid campaign, standing ready to set off for the besieged city with cargoes of provisions" (Stuart Christie).

Martínez Baena, Carlos, and Ramón Oliveras (1936). El Cerco de Huesca.

- - - (1937). División heroica.

Mignoni, Fernando, dir. (1938). Nuestro culpable.

Mutiñó, Miguel (1937). Teruel ha caído.

Olivera, Héctor, dir. (1974). ''La Patagonia Rebelde''. <--"Without a doubt, the best historical reconstitution of a series of strikes (followed by a massacre) organized by an anarcho-syndicalist union ever filmed. The film is based on a book-length essay by Osvaldo Bayer" (Stuart Christie).

Palud, Hervé, dir. (2004). Albert est méchant.

Petri, Elio, dir. (1971). ''La clase obrera va al paraiso''. <--(English: "The Working Class Goes to Heaven.") "Lulù is a real hard worker. For this reason he is loved by the masters and hated by his own colleagues. The unions decide agitations against the masters. Lulù doesn't agree till he cuts, by accident, one of his own fingers. Now, after he understood the worker's conditions, he agrees the unions and participates to the strike. He immediately is fired and, not only is abandoned by his lover, but also by the other workers. But the fights of the unions allow him under a new legislation to be hired again. At this point his mind starts giving collapse signs . . ." (1felco, Internet Movie Database).

Porchet, Adrien, dir. (1936). La Conquista del Carrascal de Chimillas.

- - - , and P. Wescheuk, dirs. (1936). Los Aguiluchos de la FAI por tierras de Aragón. Estampas de la revolución antifascista.

- - - , and P. Wescheuk, dirs. (1936). Los Aguiluchos de la FAI por tierras de Aragón. Reportaje número 2.

- - - , and P. Wescheuk, dirs. (1936). Los Aguiluchos de la FAI por tierras de Aragón. Reportaje número 3. <--Also titled "Toma de Siétamo."

Prost, Richard, dir. (1989). ''Un Autre futur''.

Puche, Pedro, dir. (1939). ''Barrios bajos''. <--"Neo-realist melodrama located in the Barcelonan underworld of the 1930s, the 'low quarters.' The protagonists are a docker, a beautiful woman, and a young lawyer on the run for an accidental murder who falls in love with her" (Stuart Christie).

Quadreny, Ramón, dir. (1937). En la Brecha - Aspectos de Nuestra Revolucion Proletaria. <--"Short fictional film (17 minutes) made by the anarcho-syndicalist labour union, the Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo, about the development of the social revolution" (Stuart Christie).

Rochlin, Sheldon, dir. (1984). Signals Through the Flames. <--Documentary about the Living Theatre, an avant-garde company founded by Julian Beck and Judith Malina, friends of Paul Goodman.

Santos, Mateo, dir. (1936). Barcelona trabaja para el frente.

- - - (1937). Forjando la victoria.

- - - (1936). Reportaje del movimiento revolucionario en Barcelona.

Sau Olite, Antonio, dir. (1937). Aurora de esperanza.

Schnitzler, Gregor, dir. (2001). ''Was tun, wenn's brennt?'' <--(English: "What To Do In Case of Fire.") "In 1987, in Berlin, six young idealistic anarchic activists leave a handcrafted bomb in a mansion. Only thirteen years later the bomb explodes, wounding two persons. The police force, under the command of the experienced inspector Manowsky (Klaus Löwitsch), investigate the terrorist act and go to the old apartment, where Tim (Til Schweiger) and the crippled Hotte (Martin Feifel) live, collecting all possible evidences, including many films. One of these films show the group making the bomb, and Hotte and Tim decide to find the former four members of their group to tell them that they may go to jail, if the investigation watch the film. Maik (Sebastian Blomberg) is a successful man working in an advertisement agency; Terror (Matthias Matschke) is a lawyer; Nele (Nadja Uhl) is a mother of two children; and Flo (Doris Schretzmayer) is a mysterious wealthy woman. The group joins force and plots a plan to retrieve the film" (Claudio Carvalho, Internet Movie Database).

Serreau, Coline, dir. (1996). La Belle verte. <--"As part of an intergalactic coalition, a well-meaning space alien volunteers to bring a message of self-actualization and harmony with nature to the one planet rejected by all her peers as incorrigible--Earth. This family-oriented French sci-fi comedy chronicles her adventures on the chaotic planet. Mila is 150 years old and has five children; encoded in her brain are two telepathic programs designed to restructure the thinking of destructive humans. The first is a fairly mild program designed to inspire the humans to rethink their world and begin asking some difficult questions. The other is far stronger and rapidly indoctrinates subjects with lofty utopian ideals and makes them deeply aware of themselves. Mila lands in Paris and is unnoticed but for the sudden, inexplicable power surges and outages that occur whenever she sends a telepathic message to her alien cohorts. Instead of eating, Mila draws energy from holding newborn babies. It is while holding an orphan infant in an obstetrics ward that her Earthly troubles begin. Feeling deeply for the baby's plight, she confronts the ward's head doctor and when logic fails, looses her programs upon him. Instantly the unsympathetic brute sees the light and begins helping her save the babe from wicked welfare workers" (Sandra Brennan, All Movie Guide).

SIE Films (1937). El General Pozas visita el frente de Aragón.

- - - (1936). Solidaridad del pueblo hacia las victimas del fascismo.

- - - (1937). La Toma de Teruel.

Sucher, Joel, and Steven Fischler, dirs. (1981). Anarchism in America.

- - - (1980). ''The Free Voice of Labor: The Jewish Anarchists''.

Vigo, Jean, dir. (1930). À propos de Nice.

- - - (1934). L'Atalante.

- - - (1933). Zéro de conduite: Jeunes diables au collège.